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develop her own personality to the fullest She would have her
trained to be an intelligent member of society as well as the head
of a household.

The failure of the Revolution and the reaction against its
principles which re-established autocratic government in France
and the rest of Europe did not by any means quench the revolu-
tionary spirit. Revolution had perhaps fewer devotees, but
those who still believed in it did so with a greater intensity than
ever. The hopes for a better social world which had been disap-
pointed in the political sphere found outlet all through the first
four decades of the century in vast Utopian schemes for the
re-making of society without regard to continuity of tradition.
St. Simon (1760-1825), aiming at the creation of a "New
Christian" community, in which love would be the dominant
motive of life, planned to supersede the feudal and military system
by an industrial order, controlled by captains of industry and
directed in matters of the spirit by men of science. Fourier
(1772-1837) wanted to break up the State into a great number
of phalanges, consisting each of 1,800 persons, who would include
among them the entire range of human capacities, and subdivided
into various smaller groups so as to leave everyone free to follow
his individual preferences.

The same disregard of the past appears in the new ideals of
education that were freely forthcoming at this time. It is as
evident in educators like Jean Joseph Jacotot (1770-1840), who
invented the " universal method " of education, as in the political
theorists for whom educational change was only part of more
comprehensive reforms. Jacotot's ideas were largely a general-
ization from his own experience. In the course of a strangely
varied career as soldier, politician, and teacher he was successively
professor of Latin and Greek literature, mathematics, Roman
Law, French language and literature. With his own case always
in mind, he urged in his Universal Education (1822) that all men
are potentially equal in ability and able to learn all subjects, such
differences as exist being due not to imperfections of intellect,
but to defects of will; that given the right start, anyone can
instruct himself in any subject; and, further, that with the right
method a teacher can teach even those subjects of which he tin-
self is ignorant. His own method was based on the principle
that *' All is in all," meaning by that, that, any one fact is connected